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tunamAl words 

Dialect of Stora Tuna Parish, South 
Dalarne, Sweden 

The following Tunamal dialect words have been furnished 
me by three natives 1 of Borlange, Stora Tuna socken, in 
Southern Dalarne, Sweden. It has seemed to me that they 
are of such interest as to warrant publication. The list con- 
tains about 200 words, with occasional illustrative phrases; 
many of them have not, so far as I know, been recorded before 
in Swedish dialects; others have here a meaning which differs 
from the one the same word has elsewhere. Some cases of 
more common words have been included on account of their 
form in the Tuna dialect. The words have been gathered 
piecemeal, and pronunciation and exact use carefully con- 
sidered for each new addition to the list. 

I realize the desirability of always having Swedish dialect 
material transcribed according to the system of the Swedish 
Dialect Society; this has, however, not been possible in this 
case. I have, therefore, employed the usual simpler notation, 2 
retaining in one case the historical writing (see below). Long 
vowels are indicated; close e is written e, close = 0; open e=$, 
and open o = q; a represents a mixed vowel as ? but a mid- 
mixed (e is high mixed); i, close and open, will be printed i; 
thick I will be indicated by black type ; the so-called "tje" -sound 
(palatalized k and t, whether prepalatal or dentipalatal) will be 
written tch medially, but kj and tj initially. My informants 
speak in these cases a sound that is intermediate but nearer pre- 
palatal, i. e., the place of articulation is but slightly anterior to 
that of Swedish j; the sA-sound, in which the ^-quality is less 
heard than in English, 3 is here written sj; a long consonant will 
be so indicated by doubling; long sj is written ssj. 

The abbreviations will be readily understood. The older 
gender designations masculine, feminine, and neuter (m.,f.,n.) 

1 Sigurd Norberg, Martin Jansson of Chicago and Agnes Theander of Bor- 
lange, Sweden. The major part of the words are from Mr. Jansson, with whom 
I went over very carefully the use of all words in the list. 

2 Approximately that of the American Dialect Society. 

'It is, as in the Bergslag dialects of Varmland, an aspirated dorso- 
velopalatal fricative. 



will be used. In references to Swedish dialects or provinces I have 
often employed the short abbreviations of Rietz: Svenskt 
Dialekt Lexicon (SvDL.); it is then to be observed that Vm = 
Viistmanland, and V&rml. = Varmland.* In references to 
Norwegian dialects or districts I have retained the abbrevia- 
tions of Ross: Norsk Ordbok. East Norwegian and West 
Norwegian will be written ENw. and WNw., respectively; 
Swedish is written Sw. Southwestern is therefore always 
southw.; also northwestern =northw. NSw. = New Swedish 
(Ny svensk). Words from Dalmalefi will be cited in normal 

It is now nearly forty years ago since Adolf Noreen's 
Dalmalet appeared. It is fitting to call to mind again in this 
connection this work by the great pioneer in Swedish dialect 
investigation. There had been evidenced dialect interest now 
and then in Sweden before that. Indeed the impulse toward 
the systematic study of Swedish dialects dates from 1872. 
And it was another "Noreen" namely, O. E. Noren, from whom 
the impulse 6 came. There had been other accounts of dialects 
published; 7 but A. Noreen's were the earliest accounts which 
emphasized the need of detail records of dialect speech and 
to offer such a study of a single dialect. During the summer 
of 1876 he studied on the spot the dialect of north Varmland, 
a stipend having been granted him for that purpose by V arm- 
lands naturhistoriska- och fornminnesfbrening. Part of the re- 
sults of these studies were published in the Uppsala univer- 
sitets drsskrift, 1877, under the title Fryksdalsm&lets ljudliira; 
the words themselves were published in his Ordbok ofver 
Fryksdalsm&let, an undertaking which also was financed by 
the fornminnes forening mentioned. The latter work included, 

4 1 quote Alfdalen, however, not Elfdalen, as Rietz. Where not quoting I 
follow the present spelling. 

' See below. 

« Of O. E. Nor6n's work the reader may find a brief account in De svenska 
landsm&kn, I, 1878, p. 2. There will also be found, pp. 8-9, the main facts 
regarding Professor Carl Save's inspiring work at TJpsala and the founding of 
the Fdrening for nordisk sprdk- och fornkunskap. The author is G. Djurklou. 

7 A presumably fairly complete list is printed in Dalmdlet, I, pp. 10-19. 


furthermore, an Ordlista fr&n Vdrmlands Alfdal, for the most 
part from Dalby socken, in the same northernmost part of 
Varmland. The results of fuller studies of the Dalby dialect 
were then issued as Dalbymdlets ljud ock bbjningslara in Vol. I 
of the Svenska landsmdlen series in 1879. 8 In the same volume 
of SvL., Noreen contributes a study of Fdromdlets Ljudlara 
(pp. 283-369), a dialect of the northern part of the Island of 
Gothland, and possibly its most interesting idiom. In subse- 
quent years there followed in quick succession similar studies 
of other regions by new investigators. The account of the 
Dalarne dialect referred to above appeared in 1881-82 in Vol. 
IV of Svenska landsmdlen under the title: Inledning till 
Dalmdlet, pp. 23, and Ordlista ofver dalm&let, pp. 240. From 
the preface we learn that the material was gathered in con- 
siderable part by Noreen in northern Dalarne in the summer 
of 1880, about 2,500 of the total 3,000 words the list contains; 
this had later been augmented from among north Dalarne 
students at Upsala University. The parishes represented are 
Orsa, by about half of the material, then Mora and Alvdal; 
local variations within each are frequently indicated. The 
landsmal alphabet is used. 9 

In the introductory pamphlet, pp. 1-10, an account is 
given of Dalmdl. Noreen finds that within the province of 
Dalarne there are two easily distinguished dialect-forms. As 
the first he delimits that of Kopparbargs bargslag (Koppar- 
bargs, Nasgards, Saters lans and Vasterbargslags fogderier), 
i.e., the bargslagsmdl; as the second form there are the "valley" 
dialects proper: Oster- ock Vasterdalarna, which is the so- 
called egentliga dalmdlet. The dialect division of the bailiwick 
of Nedansiljan (below Lake Siljan) in Osterdalarna shows a 
transitional form (toward Bergslag dialect) and Noreen would 
call it nedre dalm&let. The most characteristic dalmdl is that 

8 The two initial numbers are: 1, by G. Djurklou, an introductory article 
on earlier studies of Swedish dialects (9 pp.), and 2, by J. A. Lundell, who 
contributed to the series his fundamental work on: Del svenska landsmdls- 
alfabetet, 158 pp. 

' This had been adopted since the earlier publications; it is, therefore, not 
used in the Fryksdal treatise. 


of Upper Siljan bailiwick, from which about half of the material 
in Noreen's study is taken. 

Following this classification and terminology it will be 
necessary in any discussion to bear in mind that nedre dalm&let 
is the Lower or Nether Dalarne sub-dialect, belonging, how- 
ever, within the North Dalarne dialect, i.e., the Dalarne 
dialect proper. The rest of South Dalarne (observe, esp. 
south of Dalalven), which may be called "South Dalarne 
dialect" specifically, forms a part of the eastern extremity of 
the Bergslagsmal — the Bergslag dialect. 

Stora Tuna socken lies within Kopparbargs bargslag. The 
parish is situated south by southwest of Falun, immediately 
south of the Dal River (Dalalven); Borlange is the central 
town of the parish. The parish numbered some 20,000 
people five years ago. 10 It is bounded by the following parishes : 
Aspeboda, Gagnef, Grungarde, Silfbarg, Gustaf, and Forsang. 
The dialect is, thus, a Bergslag dialect; locally it is called tuna- 
mdl. u Until a few years ago Borlange was a municipal sam- 
halle, but is now a hoping. It owes its importance largely to 
its proximity to the steel works of Domnarvet. These employ 
between eight and ten thousand men. Borlange is also a 
marketplace for the farming population of the surrounding 
country. It is an important railroad center, Bergslagsbanan 
and Sodra Dalarnes jarnvag intersecting at Borlange. To 
what extent the conditions here noted may have obliterated 
somewhat pure dialect pronunciation of Tunamal I would not 
venture to say. 

I may add here that the Bargslag dialect of Varmland was, 
twenty years ago, 12 made the subject of an investigation by 
Gottfrid Kallstenius in an Upsala doctorate dissertation. I 
am not aware of any study of the inflections of the Varmland, 
i.e.,West Bergslag, dialect, nor of any separate study of South 
Dalarne dialect or the very closely related dialect of North 
Vastmanland. On the east our dialect exhibits several interest- 

10 So given by Mr. Janssen. 

u The rest of East Bergslag dialect is that of North Vastmanland. 
u 1898-1900 during the summers. The work was published in 1902 under 
the title: VarmlSndska BargslagsmSlets Ljudlara. Pp. 195 and two maps. 


ing points in common with the dialect of south Gestrikland 
and western Uppland. 13 

The Tunamal words are as follows: 

alnakka, /., almanac. NSw. almanack{a); also, "nysv. 
hvardagsspr . allnacka; vissa trakter, ' ' Svenska A kademiens Ordbok 
(SAO), I, Column 1125. The form alnacka is first recorded from 
Columbus Ordeskjotsel (1678) together with the form almanack. 
In Lind's Ordabok pa tyska ochsvanska (1749) allnache is given 
but designated as vulgar. In Noreen's Dalm&let the Moramal 
forms seem nearest to Tuna, but by the side of this appear also 
others, as almanaka and anak. 

aptetchg, n. def., the drugstore. NSw. apoteket. A form 
with ch is recorded from Palma for 1610, SAO, col. 2003, and 
the form aptek from Castren for 1846. Tuna indef. is aptek. 

assint, pron., nothing. NSw. alls intet. The form is recorded 
by Rietz, SvDL., for Norrbotten, Vasterbotten and western 
Dalarne; Dalm. gives asint for Orsamal. 

bagaboa, /. def., the bakery. NSw. bagarbutik or bagarbod. 
Our word is, of course, the same as bagarbodan, f. def. u The 
Tuna form is a hybrid which has assumed the g of NSw. 
bagarbod, bageri, and bagare. Elsewhere in Dalarne the vb. 
and all compounds and derivatives exhibit only k forms, it 
would seem. As to the form see SAO under bagare; earlier 
forms in Soderwall's Ordbok b'fver svenska medeltidspraket. 

bgggla, to stare at from curiosity. Ex.g., ho stog ve fonstra 
a beggla mens vi jikk fobi. Rietz, SvDL., gives begla, "sta ock 
gapa," from w. Dalarne, and bogling, noun, "en som har stora 
6gon ock ser stinnt ut," from Mora and Alvdalen, where also 
the adj. b'dglun, "som ser stinnt ut," is used. B'dglas, vb., "se 
stinnt ut," is cited for the same regions. Rietz regards the two 
words (that with e and that with o) as identical and evidently 
bogla as the earlier. The latter he seems to refer to the noun 
bog, "skinnsack," etc. The meaning of bogla would then 
originally be "to look like a puffed-out bag, stand with puffed 

13 See, e.g., Sveamalen, by Bengt Hesselman, Upsala, 1905, pp. 4, 28, and 

14 Old Swedish -boZan. The word appears extensively in Swedish place- 
names also in the form -boda or -bo. 


out, staring eyes." But the West Dalarne word begla is 
denned, "sta och gapa," which suggests that the fundamental 
idea is that of stupidity, looking stupid, or something like that. 
Whether the West and South Dalarne words, which seem to be 
identical, may be identified with the North Dalarne bogla, is 
not wholly certain. Noreen gives the forms: bSglas, "glo stint," 
Alvdal, bo gel, bogla, Mora, and bailas for Orsa; and he also gives 
the noun bog, pi. boer, "skinnsack," Alvdal bog, Mora, beg(e), 
Orsa. 16 The Orsa form beg is to be noted; on the other hand it 
seems significant that our verb is not begla in Orsa but bailas. 
For the development alg>'6g in North Dalarne, we may com- 
pare ttHgq, which becomes t$a, tota, in Alvdalen, tjfia and te.ia 
in Mora and teja in Orsa (note also in the last: the pret. tegdU, 
pp. tekl). li It is to be observed that bjg, »., and bjgla, bfglas, 
are purely North Dalarne forms; with these is also to be 
mentioned bugling, "en som har stora ogon och ser stinnt ut," 
Mora and Alfd. (Rietz). The ordinary Sw. d. form is btilga 
or some form with / and the common meaning is: "vredgas, se 
stint ut"; cp. bblkes, "se ond, bos ut," Gothland, baltjds, 
Norrb, Vasterb. balga, Sormland, Oland, b&lja, Halsingl, etc. 17 
I refer Tunamal beggla, w. Dalarne begla, more immediately 
to another group localized further in e. and southw. Norw. 
dialects. Of this Aasen gives the word begla, and Ross records 
this form for Innherred and Ostlandet in eastern Norway and 
for Jaederen and Dalarne in southw. Norway (adding "og 
flere," ie. dialects). Ross defines "kludre," and cites (with a 
query) bagle bort Tia, for Ostlandet, and the adj. beglen, 
"kludrende," for "Jaderen, Dalarne og fl." There are also u 
and a forms as: bugla bort Tia, O Tel, and bagla, cited for Tel. 
Now these Norw. d. words and others given by Ross combine 
often the idea of activity with that of clumsiness and stupidity. 
This is a semantic development out of the semantic complex: 
"stare in wonderment," or "stare stupidly, stand and gape." 

a DabnMet, p. 30. 
» DdmSlet, p. 202. 

17 The original meaning is probably (as Rietz) "uppblasas." Cp. bOlgstinn, 
adj., bukslinn, "uppblast," Vasterb. 


The latter is approximately represented by the South and 
West Dalarne bqggla, stare, "sta och gapa." 18 

bivaring, m., recruit. The root seems to be OSw. ver. man. 
If so it is the same as viring, which, as a Kalmar Lan dialect 
word, means "barnunge, liten stackare, sotunge" (Rietz); also 
pojk-viring, "half-stor pojke." For the formation, mannsing 
<mann is compared. We would then have to assume a similar 
formation for Dalarne in 1, the meaning: "young man," then 
2, soldier (since the soldier was usually a young man). We 
would still have to explain the prefix. To the countryman the 
soldier might come to be definitely associated with the nearby 
town, where the garrison was located; and so the prefix bi- 
might be the word by, hence byvaring. In this connection 
observe such formations as bying "invanare i en by," Vaster- 
gotland and Smaland (Rietz); also in the meaning: 'neighbor in 
a town.' By the influence of such a word in Dal. and such 
words as byaman, bylag, etc., but perhaps especially other 
combinations of by with a word meaning "young man" (cp. 
modn by-drdng, 19 by-pojke, etc.), byvaring might have arisen as 
the regular form for older vdring. If this is the origin of the 
word the formation is possibly not modern. The word by is 
by in Alvdalsmal and Moramal, but bi in Orsamal (also, in 
the last: byfdra=bifera), and bygga=bidza (Dalm., p. 29). 

bussi, adj., clumsy. E.g., dd vd en bussi kamp, "that is a 
clumsy old horse." See boslutt. 

barning, m., a "carrying" or "bringing" of soup, pudding 
or porridge by some neighboring woman to the sick mother 
after childbirth, i.e., the food so brought. E.g., gd ma barning. 
From bdra, to carry. 

botcha, to wash, clothes, "klappa klarna" at the brook or 
river in the old-fashioned way. Dalm. gives botsa, "stanka 
vatten med skopa" (Mora). NSw. boka. The vb. is betja in 
Halsingl.; also bdtje,. Nw. d. b'oykja, "koge i lud," Aasen, cited 
for Hallingdal; also bska in Nw. diall. 

18 Possibility of semantic influence of biglana, "to stare, stare long at," is 
to be considered but this word is recorded only for southw. Norw. diall. and 
precisely here this meaning is not evidenced for begla. 

'* Rietz gives by-drSng, m., "bisittare under ordningsmannen i en by," 


boslutt, cumbersome. Ross gives bys(y'), M adj., "buus, 
fremplumpende," for southw. Norway and Vestfold in e. 
Norway, citing the form bos for Hedemarken. 

duppa, tr., to dip ( as cake or toast into coffee). See kaffi- 
duppa. NSw. doppa, and variously in dial, usage: dippa, 
dyppa, doppa, etc. As far as I can find duppa or duppa is 
recorded for Vg. Mp., and in this meaning especially in Trond- 
hjem, Norway., Domnarvet village and factory. 

dtisa, to swing. 

eUa, to build a fire, fire up. 

e.lln, m. def., the fire. 

farstu, hallway. NSw. forstuga. Cp. fasstu, do., Vasterg., 
Ant. T.f.Sv. II, p. 162. 

faiin, faijin, adj., glad. Used with a, as: ja a faiin a ma da, I 
am glad to see you go; good riddance! In Dalm. Mora forms 
are nearest. 

femma, a bill of five kroner; a five-spot in cards. 

fin, adj., good, excellent. This use recorded in SvDL. for 
Kalmar and Oland. 

f jolla, to behave in a silly or foolish way. 

f jolla, /., silly, lightheaded woman. 

fjaling, m., quarter of a mile. Also fjalingvag. 

fjalla, girl. Cp. fjalt, "liten pilt," Halland, and fjalta, 
"lopa smart som sma barn. Og." (Rietz). However, Sw. d. 
fjala, conceal, cover up, Kalmar, is used in the phrase fjala p& 
sig," put on a great deal of clothes," in some regions (Blekinge), 
or fjalla p& sig (Kalmar). The Tuna word may be this, in 
which case it means "the one who puts on much clothes," > 
"the one who dresses up a good deal." Cp. discussion oiflicka, 
JEGPh., XII, pp. 83-86. Fjalla is somewhat slangy. 

flaka, m., a two-wheeled wagon. Literally "a flat arrange- 
ment." The word is used (forms jlake, flaka, etc.) for various 
objects in Sw. diall., but not as here. 

flessa, to be boisterous (mostly of children). Cp. flasa, 
"haftigt springa," Halsingl., and flas, "oskicklig gladtighet." 
Vb. Hs., etc. (Rietz), and a great many words with initial fl, 

20 i.e., open y. 


varying vowels and 5 or ^-combinations, signifying "boisterous 
conduct," as: flaksa, "hoppa och springa," Hs. flokks, "stor- 
gaper." G. Sk.; flamsa, do, Dls., Vm., Nk., Og., flansa., Sm. 
Kl., Bl. 

flina, to smile, grin; flina sa goa, "give one a good smile." 
N. Sw. flina, giggle, titter; weep; in Sw. dialt. these and some- 
what different meanings. In the sense of "smile" as in Tuna 
I have not found it used anywhere, but it may be. 

flgbusa, m., a hard worker, one who tears ahead and works 
fast. Cited for Uppland (fl&buse) as meaning "den som ilia 
handterar hastar." Literally a "flayer of hides." 

flgsa, to pant. 

foisa, n. def., cowbarn. Rietz gives fj as, fj'ds, "fahus, ladu- 
gard", only for Dal., and the cpds.: fjas-, fjas- and fjos-glugg, 
for Alvdalen and Mora, Bole, and Malung respectively. The 
forms fojs and fois are given for Norrb.and Angerm. and f'djs 
also for Halland and Varml. Dalm. cites forms in io, io, andio. 

forning, m. Same meaning as bdrning above. 

gali, adv., very. Gdli gott, gdli vakkert, gdli noga. Dalm. 
gives galin, adj., "som ar pa, tok" for Alvdal and gali, adv., "pa 
tok" for Orsa. SvDL. does not cite above use. It is a use of 
a strong intensive modifier that is paralleled often enough, as: 
voldsomt vakker, Nw. ;falande glad, Nw. d. ; knasande or koggande 
fin., Nw. d., etc., 21 and such an English combination as: 
"frightfully interesting." In emphatic expression rasende 
vakker would not at all be impossible in Christiana Nw. Our 
word has thick /, hence not the same as galit, etc., "ready," 
discussed by Hesselman, Sveamdlen, p. 24. It is, however, 
possible that contamination has taken place in the two words 
in Dalarne. 

gngssa, to be restless, fidgety, said of a child. 

gospiga, a daughter who is an only child. Cp. goskula, 
"kvinnlig universalarfvinge" (Dalm. for Orsa). 

gospilt, a son who is an only child. Cp. gos-gosse, "manlig 
universalarfvinge" (Dalm. for Alvdalen). 

J1 For other examples see my discussion of "Forbindelsen, adverb paa — nde 
■\-adjiktiv i norske dialekter" in Maal og Minne, Christiania, 1919, pp. 27-31. 


gangsfluga, a native of Gagnef socken. 

gossa, boy. NSw., gosse. 

grina, to cry, bawl. Rietz renders "grata, halfgrata," for 
grina-gren-grint. Osterg., and grina-grinade or grinte, Mp. Hs. 
Nk., etc., otherwise in Sw. diall. mainly "skratta; vara arg, 
skrika; gnagga." Dalm. gives graina str. vb." grina, grata," for 
Alfdalen (cp. greina, str. vb. southw. Nw., Ross). In West 
Norw. diall. the regular form is grina-grain-grene., meaning 
"cry (aloud), bawl." For ENw. Ross gives grena(ee) "lee 
uanstandigt," and for this meaning and that of: "to make a 
wry face," Aasen gives grina for ENw. My informant says 
such a use as grina op sit, "set up a grin," is rare in Tuna. 

gumsa, m., a male lamb. NSw., gumse, a ram. 

ga, daja, get away from there! 

haku, /., chin. NSw., haka. Dalm. gives oko, Alfdal and 
Mora. Rietz cites haku, haku and hbku for Vasterb. Nw. 
diall. show a great variety of forms, almost exclusively the 
original oblique case-form in -u or -o («) : haku, Ostl., huku, N. 
Gbr., hookoo, Totn., etc. In WNw. usually hqka. 

hasa, to slide, as on ice or down hill on snow. An old 
proverb cited in SvDL., p. 247, for Vasterb. and Uppl. says: 
den hasande kbm tikafort som den rasande. Rietz defines: "ga 
och draga fotterna efter sig." See further Rietz under has, 

havlu, adj., happy. 

himmen, m., heaven. Dalm. and SvDL. give only forms 
with final I for Alvdalen, etc. A form himin is given in SvDL. 
for Smaland, quoting Lagergren: Samlingar till en ordbok dfver 
smdlandska landskapsmalen (Ms.). Ross cites keemin for 
Osterd., mentioning specifically Oos and L. Elvdalen. Aasen 
knows no form with -», but he quotes a cpd. based on this 
form: himnaleite, "Horizonten," for Jaederen. 

hink, m., pail. Same as NSw. hink, lever, swing-bar. 
Between these two lies the word given by Rietz: hink, m., "en 
stolpe med hafstang m. m. hvarmed vatten uphemtas ur 
brunnen," and he adds: "nastan allm." Rietz also gives the 
verb inka and hinka, "uppfordra vatten med detta redskap, 
Osterg." Not used, so far as I can see, in Nw. dialects (hinka, 


"to go home," however, both ON. and Nw. diall. and hinkra, 
Nw. d. and led., "to halt"). 

huppa, to jump. Sw. d. usually hoppa (as NSw.) or 
hyppja, but SvDL. cites huppa for Smaland adding: "vissa 
socknar i ostra harad." In Nw. d., too, hoppa and hypja are 
rather more common and with special meanings, but huppa 
appears in Vestfold, Folio, and Smaalenene in E. Norway. 
The form does not appear in North Dalarne. 22 According to 
Hesselman the u in this and certain other words is one of the 
features Dalarne has in common with Uppland and Gastrikland, 
Sveam&len, p. 61. 

hytchi., /., old witch, hag. The medial vowel is perhaps 
half-long. The source is huk, "squatting position," and a vb. 
hykja, which in Nw. diall., besides "to sit squatting," also 
means "to crouch or stand in bent-over position." The Sw. 
dial, of Smaland has the corresponding vb. hyka, "draga sig 
undan af skr&msel" (Rietz). In Sondmore, Norway, they say 
en Hyk for "en sammenfalden eller sammenkrjft>en Figur. 
En som hyker" (Ross). 

hall ta goa! make yourself at home! help yourself! 

hassje. gubba, the pole of a hay-drying arrangement or field- 
rack. Thick poles are set into the ground; they have five holes 
in them in which pins are put and on these the horizontal 
sticks (std) are laid. For distribution of hiissje. see SvDL., and 
(for Nw. diall.) Ross. SvDL. citations are mostly for Dalarne, 
Vasterbotten, and Halsingland, but the generality of the vb. is 
noted. In Norway quite general. For the poles SvDL. cites 
various cpds.: hdssje-stad, Angerm., hasi-st&d, Vasterb., hassje- 
stdnger, etc. The Tuna cpd. seems not recorded elsewhere. 
Hassje-std, the slender top or horizontally laid stakes of the 
field-rack, is of course used. 

hassjg-roa. Same as hassje.-gubb%, but used less. Not in 
SvDL., but Ross gives it for several East Nw. dialects. The 
forms are hesjeroa, hesjeroe, Roros, kesjertfe, Guldal, hisjroo, pi., 
-rooaa, Innherred, hesjeraie, Osterd. Hesjeroa, the R5ros form, 

a However, cp. the Alvdalen compound stjinupa, Dalm., p. 158, and note 
6, p. 159. 


Ross suggests = hessje troda, but the -a forms are either def. 
sg. or indef. plurals. Yet it is possible, of course, that when 
-troa had become -roa the a-ending should here and there have 
come to be felt as the plural or def. f . sg. ending. However, this 
is probably not the explanation of -roa, for the form -troa 
should have maintained itself somewhere. We evidently have 
to do with a form in ro or something like it. The source is 
evidently raa, /., "tyk stang" (Aasen), which is cited with 
varying aa- and a-forms from southern and southw. Norway 
by Ross, but which shows the form roo, def. rooa, and pi. rooe 
in Strinda and Fosen in eastern Norway. Further rooe is 
cited for Guldal and Rj^ros and roo, def. rooaa, for Innherred. 
The cpd. hassje-roa in Tuna would seem to have come from 
Nw. diall. 

horka, be able, NSw., orka. 

ikkara, m., squirrel. NSw. ekorre. There seem to be 
mainly two groups of forms in Sw. diall., one with -orrP or 
-on, and one with -ar or -er. The former are represented by 
ikorn., Varml., Dalsl., Vasterg., ikone, Blek., igon, Bohusl., and 
ikoming, Osterg. The other by ekare, Halsingl. 24 The Tuna 
form belongs with the latter, with assimilation of its next-last 
vowel, -are to are {ara). 

jgtthoktu, adj., obstinate. 

jolplon, jobplon, n. pi., potatoes. This would appear to be 
jordapplen, "earth-apples, pommes de terre," the term used 
for potatoes in certain West Sw. diall. SvDL. cites jolapple 
for Dalsland and Varml. However for Dalarne Rietz gives 
only the form jordpara (earth-pear), which is also used in 
Halland, Blekinge, Vasterg., and Ostergotland. In the Tuna 
form the 3 before p is not heard as a rule. The form jolplon 
therefore hardly represents a contamination of jolapplen and 
jordparon but is the word jordpiron with the thick / carried over 
from jol-. See piron. 

jussom, adv., just like, sort of. 

jarboa, /., the hardware-store. Jambodan. Cp. jar, iron, 
d. of Halsingland. 

83 As.ON. ikorni, O Sw. ikorni, ekorni. 
24 In Sk&ne egern, igarn — as Dan. egern. 


janta, /., jantuna, def. pi., girl. Found in many Sw. diall. 
from Kalmars Ian on the south and Varmland on the West to 
Angermanland in the North as given in SvDL., but often in 
derogatory use. In Halsingl. the pi. given is gente. 

(kaffi)duppa, n., a lunch of cake or toast dipped in coffee. 
See duppa. 

kammara, m., bed-room. 

kamp, m., raw-boned horse. See SvDL. 

kar, m., man, fellow. 

kasa, to sleep (used of children). Dalm. offers the noun 
kas, "liten nafversang for barn," for Alvdal; also for Mora but 
adding: "forald." 25 Cp. also kasa t&v, "g0ra ifran sig barns- 
bord," Halsingl. 

kjlla, to run, hurry. See also Rietz. 

kjirra, /., pi. kjirrund, lamb, but chiefly used as a call. Cp. 
kjir, kjlranne, call to young calves in W. Norway. 

kjortil, m., skirt. 

kjaft, m., mouth. 

kjak, m., food. Slang, about = "grub" in English slang. 

kl§ opp, to "beat up," whip. 

klga, /., the itch. NSw. klida. The d is preserved in N. 

klossa, /., toad. 

klgu, adj., fidgety. In Hallingdal, Norway, the form 
klaautt, "forkjalet," occurs. Our Tuna word would be from 

knata, to walk, "hoof it." Slangy. 

knepu, ingenious, clever. Cp., with ablaut, -ig, the adj. 
knepig, "knipslug, fdrslagen, Vastm. and Narke" (Rietz), and 
NSw., knep, "trick," Nw., knep, do. 

knoga, to work. Used in somewhat more specialized mean- 
ings in the diall. cited in SvDL., Halsingl., Vasterb., Jamtl., 
Finl., etc. NSw., knoga, to act tardily. 

knusslin, adj., stingy. NSw., knussla, to stint. Cp. 
knusslig, adj., "smutsigt snal," Gotaland (Rietz). In E. Norw. 
rather common in this meaning as: knusl., n., "prutten," 

26 =fordldradt, "antiquated." 


knusling, "Gnier," knuslen, and knuslutt, adj., "smaalig, 
gnidsk, gniende" (Ross). Cp. also without /-augment: knusa, 
"gnie; prutte," Nordhordl., Norway, imperfect sometimes 
knaus, as: "Ho knaus paa mat'n." With this cp. knausig, adj., 
Gotaland (Rietz). 

knykka, to pilfer, knykka in dial, of Gotaland means: 
"hastigt och haftigt rycka till" (Rietz). The word, in some- 
what varying forms, is widely distributed in Sw. and also in 
Nw. dialects, but I have not found it in the Dalarne meaning. 

knokkla, /., pi. knokkluna, bunion. Cp. knokkel, m., (pi., 
klar), "utstaende benknota; i altmanhet hvarje framstaende 
kant eller upphojning," in South Skane, Sw. The vb. is 
extensively used in Sw. diall.: knukkla, "skrynkla ned," 
Vasterg., knokkla, knykla, knokkla, etc., elsewhere. 

kga, m., gum, rosin. N. Sw., kdda. 

kgk, hut, shanty. The same as k&g, k&k, m., "en liten 
enmastad segelbat," Bohuslan. Dalm. gives kok, "ussel koja," 
for Alvdalen. 

koksa, to look. Koks $U$r okkan kuta dm, "see who ran 

kola av, intr. vb., to be overcome, be stricken. This inter- 
esting vb. is used in as widely separated regions as Kalmar 
Lan (kora &, to die), Blekinge, Ostergotl., Vastm. {Kola &v or 
d, "svimma, blifva sanslos"), and Vasterb. (kool, "svimma," 
etc.). The Tuna word has its nearest equivalent in that of 
Vastm. Rietz shows that in one form or another it is in use 
among most widely removed members of the Finno-Ugrian 
family of languages. In Sweden its occurrences suggest a 
northern and a southern form-group. In spite of its range in 
Finno-Ugrian today it is, no doubt, a loan there from Old 
Swedish kval, vb., kvalia. The word is also found rather 
extensively in Norw. diall. as kol-all, "fuldstaendigt afkraeftet, 
udmattet," Helgeland; kolast, "forkulles," S. Trondhj; kol- 
dbtnd, adj., "dodsdomt," Mandal; kolgammel, "meget gammel, 
affaldig," Helg., etc. 

konka, to carry something that is heavy so that one walks 
with difficulty. 

korn, n., barley. 


kovan., «., money. Root clearly the same as in kofring(g), 
"Drikkepenge, Lommeskilling, Nordh. og fl." (Aasen); variant 
forms given are: kaavring and kauring (in Hardanger), and in 
the form kovr, "Erhvervelse," in Sogn, WNw. Possibly the 
same as kuv., pile, heap, in some border diall. In Vik, Sogn, 
one says kovraakr of a field owned (as his property) by a pen- 

kratta, to dig or spade up (as in a garden). The word 
usually has very different meanings; in Vm., Smal., Kl., and 
Bl., kratta = "nedmylla (sad) i jorden" (Rietz). 

kronglutt, complicated. NSw. kr&nglig. Cp. kranglutt 
veg., "trang, kroget, besvaerlig gjennemgang," Folio (Ross). 
Also Sw. d. words of somewhat more removed meanings. 

kronjil, m., a slim bony fellow. 

kuta, to run. Widely met with in varying forms in Sw. 
diall.; quoted in this form by Rietz for: Halsingl., Angermanl., 
Medelpad, Varml., Uppl., Dalsl., and Sorm., and kuut or kut in 
Vasterb. and Jamtl. For Dal. only the forms kojt, k&jt and 
k&jta are given. Dalm. gives also kaut., «., for Alvdalen., the 
vb. kaita, to run, for Orsa, and koyta for Alvdalen and Mora. 
Across the border in neighboring Norw. diall. it seems to be 
equally common. E.g., kut., m., »., a run, Rom., Stjor., Osterd., 
and into Gubr. and Valders, kute vb., lobe, rende. Meget 
brugelig i Osterdalen" (Aasen); 26 the Trondhj. form is given 
as kyte, which is also the Jamtland form. 

korpral, m., corporal. 

kol., «., coal. 

ladu, /., barn. NSw. lada. Norw. with final «, 0, also in 
Vasterb. and Fl. Dalm. gives lodo for Alvdalen. 

llr, «., shed. See velir. 

lisslesta, the smallest. The positive appears not to be used. 
For the diall. of Jamtl. and Vasterb. Rietz records si- and in- 
forms of the positive: liss gossen, and that in ss also for Hal- 
singl. and Upland (presumably only in the definite). Cp. Tel. 
Norw. lisle. 

l§n, to borrow. 

M Also in Gbr., Hedem. and Nedre Tel. (Ross). 


luppa, /., flea (on plants). NSw. hppa. The meaning = 
about "leaper, (leaf-)hopper." SvDL. does not show any- 
related forms. Cp. above huppa. 

makk, m., worm. 

makka, /., worm (the female). 

marhakk, n., hash from mare's meat. Horse-flesh was 
formerly eaten, hardly now any more. 

missmorsduppa, sauce of "mysost" (a kind of cheese). A 
dish of fried pork with a gravy made of "mysost." 

ma ha, =about English: 's 'at so? (is that so?). Cp. m& 
da? Narke, Upland, etc. (Rietz). 

mennisja, m., woman. Dar kommer en kar q en mennisja 
Pq landvag'n. 

munka (po se,i), to move aside a little. Munk pq del Knut, 
sqjafq sdtt met. 

mokka, to shovel. General in meaning, 27 not, as usually, 
confined to: removing the manure from the stable. SvDL. 
gives m'dka, "skotta sno, m. m. med skofuel," from Vasterb., 
Osterb., and Nyland, and the expression m&ka kol from Vastm. 
In central Sw. diall. the form is regularly one with 8. 

molama, moluma (possibly hardly ever the latter form), /., 

nittu, adj., cute; funny. 

nybbanko, 28 a cow that has just given birth to a calf. 
(=nybar+ko). The word is given in SvDL. in the form 
nybarko for Vastm. 

nann, to speak of, mention. 

nava, m., hand. 

okkan, pron., who. 

oknu, adj., unknown. 

okynnu, adj., mischievous. 

orimli, adv., very. 

oskapli, adv., very. 

ovasslin, adj., extravagant. Du skd'nt va si ovasslin ma 
sSgh. See sogel. 

palta (or pallta),/., a woman who is dressed raggedly. 

27 Hence = NSw. skovla. 
18 Close y. 


paltur, /., pi., old ragged clothes. 

parvill, little boy, a term of endearment. Latin 'parvulus'? 
Now NSw. also in the form parvel (Selma Lagerlof in Nils 
Holgersons resa, etc.). Rietz gives it in the latter form for 
Gotal., as pirvel for Sorml. and periiel, Halsingl. 

pin kjlt, trickery, meanness. Han jik ut pi pin kjit, he 
left the room out of pure meanness. 

plra, «., piron, pi., pear. See jolplon above. 

pulla, /., chicken. NSw. pulla, hen. 

poik, m., boy. 

ressa, to fuss, fidget. Cp. ressa, "vara ostyrlig, mycket 
munter och liflig," Halsingl., Medelpad, and rissa, "vasnas," 
Skaraberg (Vg). Many derivatives in Sw. diall. Also Nw. d. 
rissa (Ross). 

ressu, adj., restless; used of children ( = ressug). See above. 

revkiisa, a foxy person; a child that is unruly and always 
meddling with things he should not. NSw. rdv+kusa (Rietz 
under last word). 

rokk, m., coat. 

roga, adj., brimful. NSw. rdgadt (mal), full (measure). 

riktin, adj., real, veritable; also "in one's right mind." 
Karn matt v'int va riktin, "the fellow could not have been in 
his right mind." 

rumpdrag, n., a "sky-hook." A mythical tool often made 
the object of a practical joke at slaughtering time. The victim 
is sent to a neighbor to borrow a "rumpdrag," To be sent to 
borrow a — , "to run a fool's errand." 

rona, pi., the hips; said also of the haunch of animals. 

sal, m., parlor. 

sjavekpp, m., a native of Skedvi socken. 

sjonn, adj., good. NSw. skon. Used in Tuna instead of 
go, gb'tt, as: eft sjb'nt apple, a good apple. Cp. jin. 

skallg, head. NSw. skalle, skull, pate, forehead. 

skglgroa, /., a mixture (of mainly potato peelings) for the 
swine. The first part is NSw. skal, "rind," and varying dial, 
forms, Nw. d. skala, to peel potatoes. Romsd., skol, »., peeling, 
southw. Nw. 


skotoling, skotaling, *»., the word is used of a short knitted 
sock (the foot part only) which is put outside the regular sock in 
cold weather; it may be made out of an ordinary sock by 
cutting off the upper part. Cp. skotraling or skoteling, m., 
"socka som sattes inuti skon utanpa strumpan da det ar 
kallt," cited by Rietz for Gastrikland. The word would seem 
to be composed of sko+tU (in tilja). Rietz cites for Mora the 
form teln. golf tilja, (and govteln), pi. -tenner, Alvdalen, and 
talningar, m. pi., Jamtland. The Gastrikl. use shows that 
the traling or teling was set inside the shoe, hence it was a kind 
of lining for it. Cp. slag-telning, m., "smal kjapp till hvilken 
slag-klumpen skarfvas," Vb. (SvDL.). 

skrift, /., -a, def., Scripture. Han a lard i skrifta. 

skrilla, to slip. Also used as hasa. Given in SvDL. for 
KL, 01., Nk., Sk., Vb., Nb.; in the last only = "aka skridsko." 
On formation see Rietz. 

skonk, m., leg. NSw., skank, thigh, leg. Dalm. gives 
the word in this form for Mora, and skaunk for Alvdalen. The 
form skdnk is also cited in SvDL. for Osterb. in Finland. 

skorsten, chimney. N Sw. skorsten. 

slagu, flail. NSw. slaga. Cp. kaku. The nom. forms 
slagu and slogu are cited for Vasterb. In varying forms general 
Sw. in its geography; in Norway, east, and especially northeast, 
dialectal in the forms slaga, slogo, sloo, slugen, and dun. 

slarva, to "slavver" while drinking; to drink too much, be 
addicted to drink. In Sw. diall. elsewhere used of wearing dirty 
clothes or wearing one's clothes in a slovenly way. 

sletchu, »., a mixture for cows consisting of oats, salt, 
flour, water, etc. 

sllplir, »., shed where the grind-stone is kept. 

snegla, to look sideways at a person. 

starru, adj., obstinate. NSw. (hals)starrig. Halstarrig 
is also Dan-Norw. (literary); starrig or starrug seems not 
recorded in dial. use. Cp. starre, "stridig, ub^ielig person," 
Hardanger, Norway. 

stimma, to be boisterous (said of one or many). 

stimm, »., noise, continuous racket. 


stinn, adj., sated, the feeling of having eaten one's fill. 
(Sw. m&tt.) Cp. stinn, "stiff," and stinn, "fat," Norrbotten. 

stirra, to stand gaping, stand and stare stupidly. 

stakku, adj., short. Dalm. gives the form stdkkut for Mora 
and stekkun for Orsa. SvDL. cites stakkug for Dalarne, loc. 
Rattvik, and stakku for Malung in Dalarne. The forms 
stakku or stUkkug(r) are further cited for Nk., Sorml., and Varm- 
land. Elsewhere we have a variety of other forms (as stakkot, 
Kalmar, etc.). The vowel & would seem to be the vowel of 
the comparative and superlative which has established itself 
in the positive; cp. the Skane forms: stakked-stakre-stUkkst. 

stolpa, m., post. 

svarsjo-kraka, a native of Svardsjo socken. 

svenskor, pi., shoes made by a local cobbler. 

syna, /., the face. 

sanja, /., the bed. 

sogel, «., def., sogta, sweets. NSw. sovel. Nw. d. sul, sugll 
Rietz cites sugel for (i) sSmras, adv., last summer, Vg., and saugl. 
for Alvdalen, Dal. ; otherwise more removed forms. 

(i) somras, adv., last summer. 

tafflu, adj., awkward. Cp. tana, "gaa svagt og snublende," 
Rog., I. Sogn (Ross), tufla, "arbeide klodset," and var. forms. 
Also Norw. tufs., stymper, and vb. tafse, do., Gotal. Sweden. 

takka, /., young sheep (a year old). 

tarv, adj., eager for, wanting badly (e.g., as a child is tarv 
for a piece of cake). 

timotai, timothy. 

tinningja, /. def., the newspaper. 

tinta, /., small kerosene lamp (tin-cup with a wick in it). 

tjula, to cry, bawl. Cp. tjdl, "lata ilia, skrika," Vb. (Rietz). 

tjular, pi., children. Ga'n q ladjdjen er tjuldr. 

tjflta, to yell. 

t5ku, adj., wrong, as: ja kom in t& toku folk (the wrong 
house) ; e toku bok, a (the) wrong book. 

tjalta for, to importune one for something, keep at a thing 

tordyvil, m., dung-beetle. Sw. torrdyvel. 

t5kskallg, m., simpleton. 

t5kutt, troublesome, wearisome (NSw. trikig). 


tukkoa, /., chewing gum. 

tungla, «., def., the moon. Dalm. also tungal for North 
Dalarne. SvDL. for north and central Swedish dialects, with 
many cpds. (mostly from Dalarne). 

tungaljust, tung'ljust, adj., n., moonlight. Cited by Rietz for 
Rattvik, etc. ; also tungelljos, noun, for Mora. 

tunhuk, m., a native of Tuna, tunhuka, /., do. 

Tun-sokna, def., the parish of Stora Tuna. 

tvartfoskraka, an obstinate person. 

tytcha 6m, to like. NSw. tycka om. 

tgr, m., a sip. En tor kaffi. 

t§ra, m., pi. tears. 

ta, prep., to. 

tavlapp, m., a bold person, one who acts too freely, is fresh 
(said mostly of children). Du a'n-riktin tavlapp, "you are a 
fresh one, a bold youngster." 

unjen, m., def., the child. The vowel is u not o, that is not 
the close o-like vowel of the word in many Norw. diall.; nor is 
it the fronted short u (broad 8) of NSw. 

upptakrok, m., a gathering hook, about eighteen inches 
long and made from a single piece of wood, used in gathering 
the small grain after it has been cut down. (Literally a pick- 
up hook.) 

uslin, adj., skinny, sickly. 

utboling, m., a rowdy. Rietz gives the word as widely dis- 
tributed and adds: "e.g., utboring, person som ej hor till 
slagten, byen aller socknen, med bibegrepp af daliga egen- 
skaper," and then also as meaning "utskott, elak manniska." 
In Tuna used only in the sense given. 

va, to be. NSw., vara. 

vangsllr, »., wagon-shed. 

vellr, w., velra., def., wood-shed. The def. also velra. 

vetcha, adv., I should hope (think). NSw. vet jag. Nw. d. 

vettra, »., a stick of wood. Also vittr'd, with open i. 

vikklutt, adj., wobbly, not properly balanced. Used also 
about a person's unsteady walk. Cp. vikklig, "ostadig, icke 
fast," Blekinge, and vikkug, "vickande," Sorml. (Rietz). 


vinn, m., attic, loft-room. I do not find the simplex 
recorded anywhere, 29 but, to be sure, in cpds. Thus SvDL.: 
vind-og, "en liten glugg pa logen" Dal. (Mora) and "glugg pa 
en torkstuga" (Malung); vinn-duge, "glugg pa fahus ock stall 
hvarigenom spillning utkastas," Jamtland, and in the form 
wind-oga, do., Halsingl. 

vitsi, adj., smart, would-be-clever. 

vorn, pron., m., our, vgrn gossa. 

vaddj§, m., pi., walls. 

vadra, n., def., used in two ways, 1, weather; 2, air. Ex.: 
han halka q slo bena i vadra, "he slipped and his legs flew up into 
the air." 

vaffola, what do you mean? ( = vad-for-slag). 

vallut, adv., wonderful, fine. NSw. vdldigt. Da va vallutt 
gbttt Da va vallutt ho du ha vaxtl 

vatta, m., wheat. 

yttanarokk, m., overcoat. 

arv, m., inheritance. 

6m, adv., by. NSw., om. 

andra . . . allar, conj., either ... or. 

It would hardly be warranted, on the basis of a small number 
of words, to attempt to draw conclusions regarding the relation 
of Tunamal to surrounding dialect territory. It would be 
hasty to draw any inference concerning a possible closer relation- 
ship of southeast Dalarne and Gastrikland-Uppland from the 
presence of certain words in all three, as skotoling (Gastrikland) 
and flQbusd (Uppland), for the latter word is a characteristic 
dialect formation and may be present in almost any region; 
skotoling is more significant, but possibly this word rather 
points to northern connections (if it is used only in northern 
Gastrikland). The word hink, n., e.g., seems to suggest 
central Swedish connections as it is a common term in Sorml., 
Ostergotl., and Vastergotl. But it is also a Vasterbotten 
word; hence, is its geography as yet incompletely recorded? 
Some words Tuna has in common with West Swedish and 
border dialects (kuta, vb., roa, n., etc.), rather more perhaps 

89 Except, of course, in the word vind, wind. 


than it shares with the east or southeast; however, they too 
are limited in number. And everything depends on the kind 
of words. However, in their form and their use Tuna words 
seem most often to find parallels to the north (assint, fSis, vinn, 
n., ikkara, tjula, vb., ressa, vb., kdsa, vb.). And this, to be 
sure, is what we should expect. 

George T. Flom.